Manual Work and Health: An introduction to occupational health care

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A review of safety records pertinent to animal care occupations demonstrates that many of the health hazards encountered when working with nonhuman.
Table of contents



Financing will depend not only on the structural model chosen to organize the occupational health services, but also on the value that society concedes to health protection and promotion and its willingness to invest in occupational health and in the prevention of occupational hazards. A special emphasis is placed on the conditions of operation of occupational health services. It is not only necessary for the occupational health services to execute a number of tasks but it is equally important that these tasks should be performed in an appropriate manner, taking into consideration technical and ethical aspects.

There are some basic requirements as regards the operation of occupational health services which are spelled out in the ILO Convention, and especially in the Recommendation on Occupational Health Services. These may be summarized as follows:. Ethical dimensions of occupational health are increasingly taken into account, and emphasis is placed on the need for both quality and on-going evaluation of occupational health services. It is not only necessary to determine what should be done but also for which purpose and under which conditions.

The role of institutionalized occupational health services should be seen within the broader framework of health and social policies and infrastructures. The functions of occupational health services contribute to the implementation of the national policies on occupational safety, occupational health and the working environment advocated by the ILO Occupational Safety and Health Convention No. There are signs of an increasing trend to mobilize expertise and resources within the framework of networking arrangements and joint ventures.

At the international level, such is already the case for chemical safety, where there is an interorganization me-chanism for chemical safety: the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals IOMC. There are many other fields where new flexible forms of international cooperation among countries and international organizations are emerging or could be developed, such as radiation protection and biological safety. Networking arrangements open new fields of cooperation which may be adapted in a flexible manner to the theme which is to be addressed, such as occupational stress, coordinating research or updating this Encyclopaedia.

The emphasis is placed on interactions and not any more on vertical compartmentalization of disciplines. The concept of leadership gives way to active partnership. International networking for occupational safety and health is developing rapidly and could be further developed on the basis of existing structures which could be interconnected. The roles of the ILO and the WHO may well be to initiate international networks designed to fulfil the needs and demands of their constituents and to meet the common goal of protecting the people at work.

Since the s the concept of sustainable development has progressively emerged and, after the Rio Conference and the Social Summit in Copenhagen, now takes into account the interrelationships between employment, health and the environment. The common goal of a safe and healthy working environment for all will reinforce the determination of all those involved in occupational safety and health to better serve the health of workers and to contribute to a sustainable and equitable development for all.

One of the main challenges in occupational health may well be to resolve the conflict between values such as the right to health and the right to work at the level both of the individual and all workers, with the aim of protecting health and allowing employment. Membership Directory. Risk assessment and environmental concerns of industrialization: A central European experience. Singapore: World Science. Practical Loss Control Leadership. Bunn, WB. Industrial Medical Surveillance Programmes.

China Daily. New sectors opened to lure foreign investment.

Contents of the occupational safety and health policy

Brussels: CEC. Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. The health sector: Issues and priorities. Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook. Goelzer, B. Guidelines on control of chemical and physical hazards in small industries. Working document for the Inter-Regional Task Group on health protection and health promotion of workers in small-scale enterprises, November, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: ILO. Technical Report, No.

He, JS. Working report on national occupational health. Speech on the National Occupational Health Conference. Health Standards Office. Beijing, China: Chinese Standardization Press. Huuskonen, M and K Rantala. Work Environment in Small Enterprises in Report to the 70th session of the International Labour Conference. Geneva: ILO. Institute of Medicine IOM.

International Labour Standards on Occupational Safety and Health

Environmental Medicine and the Medical School Curriculum. Finland: IOH. Institute of Occupational Medicine. Geneva: ICOH. Occupational Health Services Recommendation, No. International Labour Conference, 72nd session. Report VI. Jeyaratnam, J. Occupational health services and developing nations.

Oxford: OUP. Occupational Health and National Development. Report of the First Meeting, 28 August-2 September Occupational Health Services in Finland in the Mids. McCunney, RJ. Occupational medical services. Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic. Prague: National Centre for Health Promotion.

Occupational Health Legislation in India

Administrative Rule of Occupational Disease Diagnosis. Document No. Methods of Airborne Dust Measurement in Workplace. Administrative Rule of Health Inspection Statistics. Proceedings of National Survey on Pneumoconioses. Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. Annual Reports of Occupational Health Situation in National Health Systems.

Market and Feasibility Study. National Statistics Bureau. Beijing, China: National Statistic Bureau. Niemi, J and V Notkola.

Trending Now -- Occupational Health

Occupational health and safety in small enterprises: Attitudes, knowledge and behaviour of the entrepreneurs. An intervention programme to promote improvements of the work environment in small enterprises: Functional adequacy and effectiveness of the intervention model. Paoli, P. Pokrovsky, VI. The environment, occupational conditions and their effect on the health of the population of Russia. Rantanen, J. Guidelines on organization and operation of occupation health services.

Occupational Health Services. European Series, No. Paper presented at the African sub-regional workshop on occupational health services, April, Mombasa. How to organize plant-level collaboration for workplace actions.

Occupational safety and health

Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Geneva: WHO. New epidemics in occupational health. People and Work. This to follow the different discussions, and quizzes. Online quizzes and discussions at mitt. During the weeks of the course the students may discuss or ask questions at mitt. Skip to main content. UiB Education Course. Postgraduate course.

Objectives and Content In the topic the students will get an introduction to occupational medicine, focus will be on work places and -conditions in developing countries. Guidelines of the National Research Council for planning experiments with hazardous chemicals are offered as a useful approach for incor- porating safety considerations into the design of protocols involving the experi- mental exposure of animals to toxic chemicals. Recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health should be followed by investigators who are planning research activities that involve experimentally or naturally infected animals; these recommendations are briefly summarized in the text.

Chapter 4. Allergens The prevalence of allergic reactions among animal-care workers suggests that allergenic hazards are ubiquitous in the setting of animal care and use. This chapter de- scribes the types and mechanisms of allergic reactions that follow specific expo-. Suggestions for preventive measures and interventions are also introduced. Chapter 5. The likelihood of occupa- tionally acquired zoonoses is much lower than it is popularly perceived to be. Knowledge of the health status of research animals and improvements in veteri- nary care have helped to ensure the availability of healthy research-animal popu- lations.

And exposures can be reduced even more by maintaining an awareness of zoonotic hazards and routinely carrying out appropriate hazard-control measures. The chapter presents material on zoonoses by agent category. Chapter 6. Principal Elements of an Occupational Health and Safety Program This chapter reviews the key elements of the traditional occupational health and safety program that contribute to the control of hazards and reduction of risks. Those elements constitute the scope of program activities that need to be considered in maintaining an effective occupational health and safety program.

The occupational-health element is treated in Chapter 7. Occupational Health-Care Services This chapter focuses on the occupational health-care services of an occupa- tional health and safety program. Health-care services that are appropriate for employees engaged in the care and use of research animals are reviewed. Con- trary to the prevailing view in many institutions, few regulatory mandates require institutions to provide specific health-care services to employees, and such re- quirements that do exist are usually limited to circumstances that present substan- tial risk to employees.

However, the Public Health Service re- quirement that institutions that receive federal funds for animal research provide an occupational-health program for employees with substantial animal contact has been broadly interpreted as a mandate to provide a comprehensive array of health-care services, including physical examinations and preplacement baseline serum collection and storage.

Occupational health and safety services

This chapter emphasizes that an adequate risk assessment must be a prerequisite in selecting appropriate health-care services for employees at risk. The health-care services that might be included in the occupational-health element are briefly described. We draw attention to considerations that are im- portant in selecting specific services.

Our discussion, however, is not meant to imply that a particular service is appropriate for all circumstances. We emphasize here, as we do throughout this book, that activities and services that are most likely to protect the occupational health and safety of employees will be judi- ciously based on an assessment of factors that place employees at risk for occupa- tional injury or illness. We also debated issues that were con-. The results of our deliberations are presented here in the form of specific recommendations.

Addressing Occupational Health and Safety in Animal Care and Use Programs Many institutions that support and conduct animal research have an environ- mental health and safety staff that helps the institution to fulfill its responsibility to provide a safe and healthful workplace for employees. The occupational-health concerns pertaining to the care and use of research animals, however, have often not been comprehensively addressed by these institutions. In particular, the occu- pational-health element of an occupational health and safety program might lack focus, and its contributions to a successful program might not be well understood.

We recommend that every institution initiate a concerted effort to address the health and safety hazards and the risks of occupational illness and injury that are associated with the care and use of research animals and broaden its occupa- tional health and safety program as necessary to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. The effort should involve the collaborative participation of people repre- senting all institutional activities related to the care and use of research animals, including not only the animal care and use program itself, but also research, environmental health and safety, occupational health, and management and ad- ministration.

Those activities should interact continually to maintain a successful occupational health and safety program. Institutions should consider the value of the institutional animal care and use committee in fostering the objectives of developing collaboration and sustaining interaction. Institutional Commitment and Delegation of Authority This report emphasizes the importance of interactions among many compo- nents of an institution in developing and maintaining a successful occupational health and safety program.

Few criteria of success are more important than unam- biguous identification of responsibility and delegated chains of authority. We recommend that the senior official of an institution demonstrate personal commitment to a safe and healthful workplace, delegate clearly defined duties to those with authority to commit and direct institutional resources, and establish mechanisms for monitoring the success of the occupational health and safety program. Risk Assessment: A Dynamic and Continuing Process The purpose of an occupational health and safety program is to minimize risks of occupational injury and illness by controlling or eliminating hazards in.

However, the need for a continuing process to review and address changes in the hazards and risks associated with new research programs, new technologies, emerging biological hazards, and the diversity of the workforce is often overlooked. We recommend that every institution develop a multidisciplinary approach to occupational health and safety that permits the continuing evaluation of poten- tial workplace hazards and of the risks to employees working with animals. The assessment of risk should not be limited to determination of frequency of contact, but should include the intensity of exposures, hazards associated with the animals being handled, the hazardous properties of agents used in research, the suscepti- bility of individual employees, the hazard-control measures available, and the occupational history of individual employees.

Occupational health and safety programs should be dynamic and able to adapt to changing circumstances. Participation in the Occupational Health and Safety Program Many institutions limit participation in their occupational health and safety programs to full-time employees who are involved in the care and use of animals.

That approach fails to acknowledge that employment status is not a relevant criterion in exposure. Students, visiting scientists, volunteers, and other nonemployees can be subjected to substantial risks associated with exposure even during brief or sporadic involvement in animal care and use. We recommend that an occupational health and safety program provide for the appropriate level of participation of all personnel involved in the care and use of research animals on the basis of the risks encountered, regardless of their employment status.

Determining Need for Health-Care Services Substantial contact with research animals is not a sufficient indicator of the need for health-care services. The provision of health-care services might be necessary only for particular employee groups with specifically defined occupa- tional-health risks. We recommend that the determination of need for health-care services be based on the nature of the hazards associated with the care and use of research animals and the intensity and frequency of employee exposure to these hazards.