Get e-book Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge book. Happy reading Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge Pocket Guide. Reality and Reason: Dialectic and the Theory of Knowledge ( ): Sean Sayers: Books.
Table of contents

Secular philosophy's denial of the supernatural and reliance on science as its source of knowledge necessitates specific conclusions about our mortality, our mind, and the very nature of our humanity. Like the secular view of philosophy, Marxist philosophy holds that the matter we see in nature is all that exists. This materialistic interpretation of the world is an essential ingredient of Marxist thought. The dialectic says that in everything there is a thesis the way things are and an antithesis an opposition to the way things are , which will ultimately clash.

The result of the clash is the synthesis, which becomes the new thesis. This new thesis will eventually attract another antithesis, and produce a new synthesis. For Marxists, this notion of dialectical materialism is the foundation of evolving, philosophical thought. Philosophy - Some Postmodern Worldview Approaches While there is no single cohesive Postmodern philosophy , a few consistent themes emerge from Postmodern scholars.

One of the themes is a denial of universal, objective truth. Also, Postmodernists view the language of written texts through the goggles of "deconstruction," which means reading to discover subjective, hidden, or multiple meanings. In this way, a reader's interpretation of the text becomes more important than the text itself. Just as you are creating a personal meaning for this article, you also construct the world according to your culture and experiences.

In other words, there is no "real world" out there, only billions of constructions of the world. As such, New Agers reject naturalism and seek a transcendent, spiritual quality through personal meditation and reflection. New Age philosophy rejects the secular and Marxist positions, because such thought systems deny the supernatural and metaphysical.

Since New Agers believe God is in everything, and everything is a part of God, they must conclude that everything, in essence, is spiritual. This view leads the New Ager to believe all matter can be controlled by an enlightened mind, and success, health, and love are ultimately the result of "mind over matter. Philosophy - Conclusion Contrary to popular belief, faith is critical in every philosophy. Therefore, when developing a foundation for our own philosophy, we must be extremely careful to base our position on the most reasonable, logical, and truthful assumptions.

  1. Log in to Wiley Online Library!
  2. Log in to Wiley Online Library;
  3. Draw 3-D: A step-by-step guide to perspective drawing.
  4. An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers..
  5. Log in to Wiley Online Library.

Red light has a wavelength of Each wavelength has a different light energy frequency, ultraviolet being the most intense — the hottest — because it has a very short wavelength but an extremely high frequency. Thus, the electromagnetic vibrations of ultraviolet light energy cannot be averaged with the light energy of red light for example, because light energy does not only have a electromagnetic vibration, it comes in small packages, quanta, and thus Planck was able to resolve the mystery of the ultraviolet catastrophe through this discovery.

The quanta of light did not come from the light wave but from the internal properties of atoms, which emit and absorb radiation in discrete quantities. At the sub-particle level, the gravitational positive charge of the proton interacts with the negative charge of the electron holding the electron in orbit around the nuclei. Opposites attract, thus at the quantum level some of the theories and laws of classical physics laws of gravity and motion apply as they do to the solar system. According to the classical and quantum physical world, proton atoms have existed since the Big Bang.

They have an eternal quality to them. Throughout their lives sub-atomic particles decay or transform by emitting light rays; nuclei neutron and proton atomic centre emit alpha rays daughter nuclei , protons emit beta rays electrons and electrons emit gamma rays.

  1. The Colonial Civilizing Process in Dutch Formosa, 1624-1662.
  2. Kant, Immanuel: Metaphysics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  3. Reality and reason : dialectic and the theory of knowledge.
  4. Geotechnology. An Introductory Text for Students and Engineers.
  5. Social Research Glossary.
  6. Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I.

Different chemical compounds, Hydrogen, Helium and Sodium and all matter is composed of elements whose chemical interaction depends on the number of electrons orbiting the nuclei of atoms, and atoms form elements by sharing electrons. Light is absorbed and emitted in the form of photons when atomic electrons jump between orbits.

What turned this nice simple picture on its head was the discovery of an anti-particle - anti-electron in by Dirac. Neutrons can emit electrons and change to protons, but also, protons can emit anti-electrons and change to neutrons. Anti-electrons are anti-matter. With the discovery of anti-particles, the picture became complex. Is the physical dialectic between matter plus charge and matter plus charge or matter and anti-matter?

Epistemology or the theory of knowledge

The onset of the universe was proposed to have started according to the Big Bang theory the most popular theory in physics from a mass of gas, which was spread across space in patches thinker is some places than others. In parts where the gas cloud was dense, gravitational fields emerged which caused the gaseous whirlpool to collapse in on itself causing the fusion of atoms resulting in the emergence of a sun.

Nuclear fusion releases enormous amounts of energy, as does fission — the splitting of atoms. The amount of energy generated at Big Bang explosion caused the universe to go expanding 15 billion years after the event. However, as Fraser suggests if this theory is correct, there should be equal amounts of matter and anti-matter in the universe when in actual fact matter dominates the universe.

Thus, the natural dialectic cannot be between matter and anti-matter as some physicists presently conceive it. Sakharov , a Russian scientist began his study of matter and anti-matter in the universe. There were no anti-particles or so few that under no circumstances could they balance matter.

In fact, anti-particles live for approximately one billionth of a second, where as matter, particularly protons, have been around since the dawn of time. And according to Fraser, if none is found then theories of the universe and physics need re-examining , p This is a precarious base from which to start my analysis of the dialectic levels. Quarks discovered in the s by various physicists are particles found inside the sub-atomic particles, neutrons, protons and electrons that constitute an atom.

The electric charge remains with the sub-atomic particle through its birth, all through its life, until it decays. Quarks are like magnets, no matter how many times a magnet is fragmented, it will always retain a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other but instead of positive and negative charges quarks are either left-handed or right-handed.

The two ends, left and right are held together by gluons. Gluons stick quarks and anti-quarks together and can stick three quarks together to make a proton, which has two right up spinning or clockwise rotating quarks and one left down or anti-clockwise rotating quark. If these quark left and right spins were equivalent to charge, it would form part of the dialectic symmetry of opposites missing from present physics theory. In addition, if quarks are charges, then perhaps in the beginning the universe was a three-dimensional void, collapsing in on itself generating opposite forces.

In turn quarks forming protons; protons atoms that make up the constituents of cosmic dust which went on to form the gaseous whirlpool that collapsed in on itself culminating in the Big Bang. Therefore, the dialectic would be between matter plus charge and matter plus charge, on a material and a sub-atomic particle level; and the original dialectic of opposite forces of gravitating energy fields culminating into quarks — the charge and gamma rays — the radiating energy.

Like Heraclitus, my theory would also suggest a universe in which opposites change into their complementary or dichotomy whichever way you want to view it, or are gamma-radiation the same as quark-gravitation? This would make gamma rays the mutually in-exclusive opposite of quarks. Gamma rays are emitted during nuclear reactions and they are the cosmic rays that form background radiation in out space.

Gamma rays are electric radiation with no mass, no charge and are unaffected by magnets. They are so small they pass through substances and only occasionally, cause ionisation by giving some energy to an E- putting it out of its orbit. So quarks form the charge of sub-atomic particles and gamma rays are absorbed and emitted by them in the form of radiation energy. Both are essential to matter, they form the bedrock of matter in the universe and I suggest form the natural dialectic of quark-gravitation, gamma radiation. Substituting gamma-radiation waves for anti-matter and quark-gravitation for matter-particles would explain the lack of anti-matter in the universe - anti-matter in the universe is gamma-radiation waves.

The quark of physics plays a similar role to deoxyribonucleic acid DNA on the biological level. Quarks determine the negative or positive charge of a sub-atomic particle. DNA is self-replicating and responsible for the reproduction of inherited characteristics of organic and biological matter. However, the biological organism is that bit more complex, it is a bounded system that has insulated itself from the pre-established laws of classical and quantum physics thus its hereditary characteristics are not so deterministic.

Biological organisms, especially those high on the phylogenic hierarchy, have consciousness and can choose how to act depending on the stable or unstable internal and external environmental conditions. Inherited characteristics are programmed by DNA just as the charge of a sub-atomic particle is determined by quarks; because the biological system has evolved from the organic system, which in turn evolved from the chemical system that evolved from the physical system. Thus, the biological organism contains within it, the properties of the physical system but in a much more elaborate fashion owing to the dynamism of the evolutionary dialectic process.

Therefore the existing laws of classical and quantum physics do not completely govern the biological organism, but remnants of them remain in an adapted more complex form. How did consciousness develop? Is consciousness a facet that has evolved due to its survival potential or is it an incidental product of the nervous system? The brain evolves one way via the dialectic of the human central nervous system and the physical world.

Like muscle development in other parts of the body, brain cells take in neuropeptides, proteins Thompson, Neurotransmitters have an organising function in relation to neuropeptides and what we eat can have a direct effect on our brain functioning. Nerve cells however do not increase in number through the intake of nutrients. We are born with approximately one billion brain cells, but synaptic connections continue to develop until we die.

  • No image there and the gaze remains : the visual in the work of Jorie Graham.
  • Similar books and articles;
  • Plato and Aristotle: How Do They Differ?.
  • Bollywood in the Age of New Media: The Geo-televisual Aesthetic.
  • Haiti After The Earthquake?
  • Download options.
  • Each neuron has some where between one thousand to ten thousand connections with other neurons and it appears to me that the development of synaptic connections is the result of the evolutionary dialectic between the central nervous system as a whole and the mind: consciousness. If consciousness develops the secondary processes through experience, then consciousness must be necessary for these processes and have the ability to control their development. Primary states of consciousness such as perception, sensation, emotion and movement are all facets of the old mammalian brain memory is too, involving the hippocampus so therefore so is thought that would imply that the nervous system is an incidental product of consciousness.

    It appears to me that there is a dialectical process between brain and mind, between matter, and mind as an electrochemical field of consciousness. Just like quarks and radiation, one is inseparable from the other and as opposites form an inseparable harmonic tension of the dialectical process they constitute. Because the nervous system contains electrical synapses, you would think that the brain was a by-product of the nervous system because biological organisms low on the phyologenetic hierarchy have electrical synapses and those high on the phylogenetic hierarchy have a mixture of chemical and electrical synapses.

    The human brain contains both electrical and chemical synapses but electrical pre-synaptic elements are so large it limits the number of synapses to only a few per neuron. Learning and memory are limited in a nervous system with only electrical synapses. Chemical synapses on the other hand are much smaller so there are thousands of synapses on each neuron see above diagram allowing associated learning for example, to occur much more rapidly Thomas, This has importance for the way physics has been united with psychology by others.

    If the laws of classical and quantum physics govern biological matter, then it would be best if neuron synapses were electrical because electrical neurotransmitters would probably travelled as the speed of light rather than at one to two milliseconds as chemical neurotransmitters do. Penrose a quantum physicist, was perplexed as to how biological brain matter achieves global binding causing a unified state of consciousness.

    How does the brain produce and change states of consciousness?

    Rick Turner: Dialectical Reason / Radical Philosophy

    One minute you might be reading a book, then all of a sudden, you remember that you put the kettle on and it may have boiled dry. The change in thought from reading to remembering is accompanied by a different state of consciousness, from deep concentration to an alert state that demands immediate action. Penrose suggests that the mechanism that synchronises a unified experience of consciousness may be in the microtubules or axons.

    Axons are strands of tissue fibre that branch from neurons and form synaptic connections through the dendrites with other neurons:. Neurotransmitters travel through the network of axons and dendrites and cross the synaptic gap between neurons carrying chemical messages: electrochemical communication. This would make the brain a quantum system in which all the synapses fire in unison causing global binding — a unified field of consciousness.

    Find a copy online

    Neurotransmitters are the electrochemicals of global binding because they fill the synaptic gap causing fusion between synapses and neurons but neurotransmitters are regulated by chemical modulatory systems Thomas, of which there are four: the noradrenergic, the serotonergic, the dopaminergic and cholinergic Hobson, Serotonin, noradrenaline, epinephrine adrenaline , acetylcholine, dopamine, GABA gamma aminobutyric and peptides, glycine, glutamate and aspartate are all neurotransmitters that have different effects on the brain.

    The dopaminergic modulator system has three dopamine circuits connect by one neuronal pathway. One of the dopamine systems is located in the hypothalamus, one pathway goes from the substantia nigra to the basal ganaglia and the third run from the midbrain and penetrates deeply into the cerebral cortex and forebrain limbic system Thomas, The dopamine modulatory system is interesting; it is responsible for global binding associated with higher states of consciousness: thought, memory and positive emotions.

    In addition, the dopaminergic is the only modulatory system active during REM sleep when vivid and lucid dreams occur, and in animals that are alert, brain cells oscillate in synchrony producing gamma rays. First-messenger neurotransmitters such as dopamine travel through the modulator system exciting or inhibiting synapses.

    There are thousands of synapses on each neuron. Synaptic potential can be generated anywhere on the cell body or dendrites. Neural activity is both spontaneous and continuous causing only a small depolarisation in the cell membranes. But the sum of these brief depolarisations — called excitatory postsynaptic potential — if cause synapses to activity simultaneously, will cross the action potential-generating threshold, influencing states of consciousness: the electrochemical field of consciousness:.

    Once the transmitter attaches to the postsynaptic receptor, it activates the second-messenger system causing a chemical reaction. But what activates modulatory systems? The serotonergic modulatory system is governed by the pineal gland, a tiny structure at the top of the brain stem, which secretes melatonin, an hormone that activates serotonin production, a neurotransmitter that in turn regulates sleep, temperature and is also involved in the activity of the female gonads. Thus when it excites synapses is can induces a global states of consciousness, sleep.

    During wakened states of consciousness, serotonin excitation of synapses has a calming effect and can produce states of euphoria. Too much serotonin in the brain leads to depression and it inhibits thought processes because when it inhibits synapses, in blocks the up take of dopamine. Too little serotonin can lead to schizophrenia because dopamine is allowed to build up in the brain cells. Hobson suggests serotonin is involved in associative learning in sea slugs. So it appears that serotonin and dopamine regulatory systems counteract each other, because when dopamine causes excitation of synapses it blocks the up take of serotonin, and vice versa.

    Hobson suggests that the modulatory systems are more involved in brain states than the reticular activating system RAS but I think that both play a part. The RAS runs from the spinal cord to the forebrain carrying sensory information and motor information, it also synchronises visual and auditory reflexes based on information from the hindbrain. The forebrain contains the cerebral cortex where the development of the brain continues after birth, such as cognitive development and sensory motor development Gross, The RAS is responsible for alertness and selective attention so that we only respond to changes in stimuli that we need to.

    The limbic system in the brain serves as a meeting place between the cortex and older parts of the brain, hypothalamus and thalamus. This information is integrated in the limbic system and sent back to the cortex, the cortex being responsible for the analysis and evaluation of the combined information. I have a hunch therefore that the RAS and the limbic system, from which the dopaminergic pathways stem, play a vital role in regulating not only dopamine modulation but also cortical activity and development which depends not only on higher brain function but also on the other part of the body involving movement, homeostasis, and sensory information.

    Therefore, the limbic system and RAS supply the cortex with all the information it needs for adaptive development because it is responsible for alertness and selective attention and also supplies the electrochemical transmitter need to maintain a state of consciousness that affords secondary states of consciousness. Lastly, the RAS carries sensory information from the spinal cord to the cortex.

    Peptide neuronal modulators are thought to be involved in encoding memories, and they are also involved in sensory transmission, thus the sensory data that memories are composed of, could contain sensible qualities of the external environment as well as the internal one.

    What I am suggesting here, is that memories encoded in peptides could have a one to one correspondence with reality. Sensory information: visual, auditory, taste etc. More importantly, what this analysis shows is that secondary states of consciousness: thought, memory, intention and volition are the product of information that is a unity of sensory data from the internal homeostasis: drives and emotions etc and external environment visual, auditory, touch taste etc that is analysed and evaluated in the cortex.

    Marx did not discuss the physical nature of human beings but regards activity emanating for human physical nature — both practical and theoretical - as a starting point for dialectical historical materialism McLellan, Karl Marx: Selected Writings, , p The interaction between theory and practice: practice as active sensuousness — as a material reality informing consciousness, through the senses; and active perception whereby active sensuousness and active perception lead to theory production i.

    Reflexive practice is a more intense form of practical-critical activity, the oscillation of theory and practice. We deliberately direct consciousness, trying to maintain a higher level of awareness so that understanding and meaning occur. Reflexive practice incorporates both retroductive and abductive strategies of investigation Lisle, , strategies that have lead to some of the most important discoveries ever made.

    By maintaining heighten consciousness, reflexivity acts like a modulatory system. Schizophrenia according to neurobiologists is a brain disorder that an individual can become predisposed to because the neurotransmitter dopamine can build up in brain cells and affect DNA Thompson, ; Hobson, so I cannot see any reason why neurotransmitters are not equally able to affect DNA in the same way but to the benefit of the individual! When Reflexive practice focuses consciousness, it represents an intense stimulus to the neuron, enough to produce an action potential that exceeds the threshold of response.

    An intense stimulus will increase the frequency of firing thereby affecting a greater number of other neurons which in turn release neurotransmitters into synaptic clefts probably dopamine which increases the binding of neurons radiating an electrochemical filed of consciousness that is sustained for longer periods due to the increased amount of neuron firing and neurotransmitter release. The neurotransmitter in turn activates the second message system causing a chemical reaction in neuron cells, where protein encode memories can affect the DNA.

    The global binding process links areas of the brain forming a lattice, and given that memories are encode in protein molecules in brain cells, the global binding lattice weaves the protein-encoded memories together like a concept matrix. The more links a student makes between the information presented, and information memories they already hold, the more likely they are to achieve concept formation. Word meaning is achieved through connections — trace paths connected via the electromagnetic field of consciousness.

    The theory of knowledge

    What I am suggesting is that each piece of information acts as stimuli to cue memories that are cocooned in the globalised field of consciousness. Information coming in from the senses, auditory, visual etc. And the dopaminergic modulatory system will cause synchronised firing of synapses and neurons that in turn if they too contain enough synaptic excitations will fire.

    Dialectical Reason

    The electrochemical neuron transmitter that is released in turn will sustain the field of consciousness alerted by the stimulus-problem until the problem is solved — until an idea is formed or synaptic connections are made that join together existing memories. What I am suggesting occurs is that the synapses that fires is the one which is connected to a neuron that contains protein encoded memories that are associated to the incoming data, peptides and ions from the senses.

    The fusion between the protein encoded memories in the neuron cells and the ions and peptides which are allowed in due to synaptic firing, is the production of a new idea in the electrochemical field of consciousness — mind-light. And at the same time it constitutes the creation of brain matter — new synaptic connections — trace paths. Interactive teaching techniques produce better results than didactic ones because students are actively involved in the process, their minds are more active therefore forming synaptic connects.

    Directing consciousness through student reflexive practice in this way spurs learning and development on because reflexive practice heightens consciousness awareness increasing the dialectic interchange between mind and brain; between the enveloping electrochemical lattice of global consciousness and cell protein encoded memories. The oscillation of theory and practice in cycles of reflection and action intensifies global states of consciousness meshing together cell protein encoded memories leading to concept formation - transcendental knowledge — light, truth. It is a reflection of reality, truth, because through reflexive practice, information from the senses — empirical information, is linked to cognitive rationality.

    This occurs because on the psychophysical level, the dialectic of the nervous system internal and external sensory information and central nervous system brain-mind , is brought together in the limbic system and the reticular activating system combining information from the internal biological system, and external information via the senses. Through sensing and perceiving therefore, external reality is brought into the biological system, combines with the internal system through consciousness and produces ideas leading to material developments in brain-mind: Ontogenetic development.


    I am suggesting a one to one correspondence with external reality and symbolic systems if the concepts are processed through the oscillation of practice and theory. The dialectic of mind and brain mimics the dialectic of quantum physics in which quark-gravitation and gamma radiation are in an inseparable struggle causing one to change into the other, the process involved in Marxian psychophysics creating ideas and development.

    My theorising runs congruent with that of Newman and Holzman My analysis describes the fundamental ontogenetic dialectic process in psychophysical terms, the psychophysics of activity-theoretic.