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Analysis of impact melt and vapor production in CTH for planetary applications. This study explores impact melt and vapor generation for a variety of impact speeds and materials using the shock physics code CTH. A series of experiments were conducted on explosively loaded rings for the purpose of studying fragmentation. In addition to the collection of fragments for analysis, the radial velocity of the expanding ring was measured with PDV and the arrangement was imaged using a high speed camera. Both the ring material and the material used as the explosive container were altered and the results compared with simulations performed in CTH.
Good agreement was found between the simulations and the experiments. Comparing CTH simulations and experiments on explosively loaded rings. A series of experiments were conducted on explosively loaded metallic rings for the purpose of studying fragmentation. In addition to the collection of fragments for analysis, the radial velocity of the expanding ring was measured with photon Doppler velocimetry PDV and the arrangement was imaged using high speed photography. Knowledge of eddy currents in the vacuum vessel walls and nearby conducting support structures can significantly contribute to the accuracy of Magnetohydrodynamics MHD equilibrium reconstruction in toroidal plasmas.
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Moreover, the magnetic fields produced by the eddy currents could generate error fields that may give rise to islands at rational surfaces or cause field lines to become chaotic. In both cases current filaments representing the eddy currents were prepared for input into VMEC code for MHD equilibrium reconstruction of the plasma discharge.
Medical procedures such as arthroscopy have placed increasing demands on the output performance of the CTH :YAG laser at 2. Intensive research has been conducted to improve the average power, pulse energies, and rep rates while reducing any failure mechanisms. The results of this work is reported along with a discussion of the important engineering parameters concerning the design of a high power medical CTH :YAG laser. A new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code and its application to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.
We construct a new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code optimized in the Milne coordinates. We split the conservation equations into an ideal part and a viscous part, using the Strang spitting method. In the code a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation is utilized for the ideal part and the Piecewise Exact Solution PES method is applied for the viscous part.
We check the validity of our numerical calculations by comparing analytical solutions, the viscous Bjorken's flow and the Israel-Stewart theory in Gubser flow regime. Using the code , we discuss possible development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The effects of capillary transit time heterogeneity CTH on brain oxygenation. PubMed Central. We recently extended the classic flow—diffusion equation, which relates blood flow to tissue oxygenation, to take capillary transit time heterogeneity CTH into account.
Realizing that cerebral oxygen availability depends on both cerebral blood flow CBF and capillary flow patterns, we have speculated that CTH may be actively regulated and that changes in the capillary morphology and function, as well as in blood rheology, may be involved in the pathogenesis of conditions such as dementia and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The first extended flow—diffusion equation involved simplifying assumptions which may not hold in tissue.
Here, we explicitly incorporate the effects of oxygen metabolism on tissue oxygen tension and extraction efficacy, and assess the extent to which the type of capillary transit time distribution affects the overall effects of CTH on flow—metabolism coupling reported earlier. After incorporating tissue oxygen metabolism, our model predicts changes in oxygen consumption and tissue oxygen tension during functional activation in accordance with literature reports. We find that, for large CTH values, a blood flow increase fails to cause significant improvements in oxygen delivery, and can even decrease it; a condition of malignant CTH.
These results are found to be largely insensitive to the choice of the transit time distribution. A new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code and its application to the Kelvin—Helmholtz instability in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Here, we construct a new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code optimized in the Milne coordinates.
We also split the conservation equations into an ideal part and a viscous part, using the Strang spitting method. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator. This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic SPH simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
The other relationship deals with the deviatoric stress and is taken care of by the constitutive equations which are discussed in the next The spherical part of the stress tensor is the equation of state Waves in rods are considered to create a state of. Application of the High Gradient hydrodynamics code to simulations of a two-dimensional zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate. The High Gradient hydrodynamics HIGRAD code is an atmospheric computational fluid dynamics code created by Los Alamos National Laboratory to accurately represent flows characterized by sharp gradients in velocity, concentration, and temperature.
In the current study, boundary conditions implemented in HIGRAD are varied to find those that better reproduce the reduced physics of a flat plate boundary layer to compare with complex physics of the atmospheric boundary layer. High-order turbulence statistics are collected. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness is at the inflow and the Mach number for the flow is 0.
Results are compared at Reynolds numbers of and Ennis, D. Measurements of impurity ion emissivity and velocity in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid CTH experiment are achieved with a new optical coherence imaging diagnostic. The Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy CIS technique uses an imaging interferometer of fixed delay to provide 2D spectral images, making it ideal for investigating the non-axisymmetric geometry of CTH plasmas. Bench tests using Zn and Cd light sources reveal that the temperature of the interferometer optics must be controlled to within 0.
A new collaboration between Auburn University and the Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics is underway to develop two new coherence imaging instruments for ion impurity flow measurements in orthogonal directions to investigate the 3D physics of the W7-X island divertor during OP1. A continuous wave laser tunable over most of the visible region will be incorporated to provide immediate and accurate calibrations of both CIS systems during plasma operations.
SPECT3D is a multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code used to post-process the output from radiation- hydrodynamics RH and particle-in-cell PIC codes to generate diagnostic signatures e. This ability to post-process simulation code output plays a pivotal role in assessing the reliability of RH and PIC simulation codes and their physics models. It computes a variety of diagnostic signatures that can be compared with experimental measurements, including: time-resolved and time-integrated spectra, space-resolved spectra and streaked spectra; filtered and monochromatic images; and X-ray diode signals.
Simulated images and spectra can include the effects of backlighters, as well as the effects of instrumental broadening and time-gating. SPECT3D also includes a drilldown capability that shows where frequency-dependent radiation is emitted and absorbed as it propagates through the plasma towards the detector, thereby providing insights on where the radiation seen by a detector originates within the plasma.
SPECT3D has the capability to model a variety of complex atomic and radiative processes that affect the radiation seen by imaging and spectral detectors in high energy density physics HEDP experiments. Photoabsorption rates can be computed using either escape probability models or, for selected 1D and 2D geometries, multi-angle radiative transfer models.
The effects of non-thermal i. To study the influence of energetic particles on spectra and images recorded in intense short-pulse laser experiments, the effects of both relativistic electrons and energetic proton beams can be simulated. Several impressive data sets forejecta-dominated SNRs can now be found in the archives, the Cas A VLP justbeing one albeit probably the most spectacular example. However, it isoften hard to establish quantitative, unambiguous connections between theX-ray observations of SNRs and the dramatic events involved in a corecollapse or thermonuclear SN explosion.
The core of the problem is in the transient nature of theplasmas in SNRs, which results in anintimate relationship between the structure of the ejecta and AM, the SNRdynamics arising from their interaction, and the ensuing X-rayemission. Thus, the ONLY way to understand the X-ray observations ofejecta-dominated SNRs at all levels, from the spatially integrated spectrato the subarcsecond scales that can be resolved by Chandra, is to couplehydrodynamic simulations to nonequilibrium ionization NEI calculationsand X-ray spectral codes.
I will review the basic ingredients that enterthis kind of calculations, and what are the prospects for using them tounderstand the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in young SNRs. Thisunderstanding when it is possible , can turn SNRs into veritable timemachines, revealing the secrets of the titanic explosions that generatedthem hundreds of years ago. Emission from W I is most intense in the UV region. Initial W erosion measurements are compared to erosion using the Complete UV spectra will be presented and compared to synthetic spectra for varying plasma conditions.
In he worked in a private Further work is planned to account for a phase transition using the three-phase modelling approach . In the. Ship Hydrodynamics. Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. Radiation Hydrodynamics.
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly.
Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons , but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial.
Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics '' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid.
That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to. Bacterial Hydrodynamics. Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale.
In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges. Gaming as a Therapeutic Tool in Adolescence. It is about the use of video games as a therapeutic tool, mobilizing of the symptomatology of the teenager. Their specificity is that the participative adult shows a regressive ability strong enough to play with teenagers and is very careful to not interpret what takes place within.
It allows to evolve from a "play together" to a "talk together", a moment of symbolization and of being able to stand back in regards to his or her own recreational activities. As a discussion, this clinical illustration of Karl recovering from depression and dependency. This setting for speech allowed him to evolve into an impulse mood and to reconnect emotionally. Compound 5 exhibits the end of a transition from the high-spin to the low-spin state of the octahedral FeII ions. Although the trimetallic chain 4 shows some degree of spin correlation along the chain, magnetic ordering does not occur.
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The book is written from the point of view intrinsic to fluid mechanics and applied mathematics. The analytical aspects of the theory are emphasized. However, it has also been tried, wherever possible, to relate the theory to experimental and numerical results. Mechanisms of instability are considered along with fundamental concepts of hydrodynamic stability, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the break-up of a liquid jet in air.
Aspects of thermal instability are investigated, taking into account the equations of motion, the stability problem, general stability characteristics, particular stability characteristics, the cells, and experimental results.
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The inviscid theory and the viscous theory are examined in connection with a study of parallel shear flows. Centrifugal instability is discussed along with uniform asymptotic approximations, and problems of nonlinear stability. Attention is also given to baroclinic instability, the instability of the pinch, the development of linear instability in time and space, and the instability of unsteady flows. M30A1, respectively.
Flashlamp pumped Cth :YAG lasers are mainly used in medical applications urology. The main laser transition is at 2. This paper will describe a method of efficiently generating high output energy at low intra-cavity energy density by using an alternative 2. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave GW signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae SNe , employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation.
The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock.
Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star PNS convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron anti- neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion.
They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics. Chromatin hydrodynamics. Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory-the two-fluid model-in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute.
This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent while vector events generate the transverse modes where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent. Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution.
We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model-the Maxwell fluid-for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence.
Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chromatin Hydrodynamics. Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory—the two-fluid model—in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute.
We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model—the Maxwell fluid—for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. A hydrodynamic approach to cosmology - Methodology. The present study describes an accurate and efficient hydrodynamic code for evolving self-gravitating cosmological systems.
The hydrodynamic code is a flux-based mesh code originally designed for engineering hydrodynamical applications.
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A variety of checks were performed which indicate that the resolution of the code is a few cells, providing accuracy for integral energy quantities in the present simulations of percent over the whole runs. The background radiation field is simultaneously determined in the range 1 eV to keV, allowing for absorption, emission, and cosmological effects.
It is shown how the inevitable numerical inaccuracies can be estimated and to some extent overcome. Buckova, M. Laser radiation can be used for effective caries removal and cavity preparation without significant thermal effects, collateral damage of tooth structure, or patient discomfort. The second goal was to increase the sealing ability of hard dental tissues using sonic-activated bulk filling material with change in viscosity during processing.
The enamel artificial caries was gently removed by the laser radiation and sonic-activated composite fillings were inserted. A stereomicroscope and then a scanning electron microscope were used to evaluate the enamel surface. Er:YAG contact mode ablation in enamel was quick and precise; the cavity was smooth with a keyhole shaped prism and rod relief arrangement without a smear layer. The sonic-activated filling material was consistently regularly distributed; no cracks or microleakage in the enamel were observed.
CTH :YAG irradiation was able to clean but not ablate the enamel surface; in contact and also in non-contact mode there was evidence of melting and fusing of the enamel. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations. We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes.
By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.
Nevertheless, during functional activation and in some disease states, brain tissue seemingly produces lactate although cerebral blood flow CBF delivers sufficient oxygen, so-called aerobic glycolysis. OGI measurements, in turn, are method-dependent in that estimates based on glucose analog uptake depend on the so-called lumped constant LC to arrive at CMRglc. Capillary transit time heterogeneity CTH , which is believed to change during functional activation and in some disease states, affects the extraction efficacy of oxygen from blood.
We developed a three-compartment model of glucose extraction to examine whether CTH also affects glucose extraction into brain tissue. We then combined this model with our previous model of oxygen extraction to examine whether differential glucose and oxygen extraction might favor non-oxidative glucose metabolism under certain conditions.
Our model predicts that glucose uptake is largely unaffected by changes in its plasma concentration, while changes in CBF and CTH affect glucose and oxygen uptake to different extents. Accordingly, functional hyperemia facilitates glucose uptake more than oxygen uptake, favoring aerobic glycolysis during enhanced energy demands.
A strong adjuvant based on glycol-chitosan-coated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles potentiates mucosal immune responses against the recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis fusion antigen CTH Induction of mucosal immunity with vaccines is attractive for the immunological protection against pathogen entry directly at the site of infection. An example is infection with Chlamydia trachomatis Ct , which is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective vaccine. A vaccine against Ct should elicit protective humoral and cell-mediated immune CMI responses in the genital tract mucosa.
We previously designed an antibody- and CMI-inducing adjuvant based on poly dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid PLGA nanoparticles modified with the cationic surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide and the immunopotentiator trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate. Here we show that immunization with these lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles LPNs coated with the mucoadhesive polymer chitosan enhances mucosal immune responses.
Glycol chitosan GC -modified LPNs were engineered using an oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanoparticle design was optimized in a highly systematic way by using a quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space and to gain maximal mechanistic information about the GC coating of the LPNs. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy revealed a PLGA core coated with one or several concentric lipid bilayers. The GC coating of the surface was identified as a saturable, GC concentration-dependent increase in particle size and a reduction of the zeta-potential, and the coating layer could be compressed upon addition of salt.
Increased antigen-specific mucosal immune responses were induced in the lungs and the genital tract with the optimized GC-coated LPN adjuvant upon nasal immunization of mice with the recombinant Ct fusion antigen CTH This study demonstrates that mucosal administration of CTH adjuvanted with chitosan. Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are a the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and b the absence of an artificial viscosity term.
We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear-flow test and the 'blob' test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. Besides comparing the results of GSPH with those from standard SPH implementations, we also discuss in detail the effect on the performances of GSPH of changing different aspects of its implementation: choice of the number of neighbours, accuracy of the interpolation procedure to locate the interface between two fluid elements particles for the solution of the Riemann problem, order of the reconstruction for the assignment of variables at the interface, choice of the limiter to prevent oscillations of.
Hydrodynamics in Cell Studies. Hydrodynamic phenomena are ubiquitous in living organisms and can be used to manipulate cells or emulate physiological microenvironments experienced in vivo. Hydrodynamic effects influence multiple cellular properties and processes, including cell morphology, intracellular processes, cell—cell signaling cascades and reaction kinetics, and play an important role at the single-cell, multicellular, and organ level. Selected hydrodynamic effects can also be leveraged to control mechanical stresses, analyte transport, as well as local temperature within cellular microenvironments.
With a better understanding of fluid mechanics at the micrometer-length scale and the advent of microfluidic technologies, a new generation of experimental tools that provide control over cellular microenvironments and emulate physiological conditions with exquisite accuracy is now emerging.
Accordingly, we believe that it is timely to assess the concepts underlying hydrodynamic control of cellular microenvironments and their applications and provide some perspective on the future of such tools in in vitro cell-culture models.
Generally, we describe the interplay between living cells, hydrodynamic stressors, and fluid flow-induced effects imposed on the cells. This interplay results in a broad range of chemical, biological, and physical phenomena in and around cells. More specifically, we describe and formulate the underlying physics of hydrodynamic phenomena affecting both adhered and suspended cells. Moreover, we provide an overview of representative studies that leverage hydrodynamic effects in the context of single-cell studies within microfluidic systems.
Relativistic anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this paper we review recent progress in relativistic anisotropic hydrodynamics. We begin with a pedagogical introduction to the topic which takes into account the advances in our understanding of this topic since its inception. We consider both conformal and non-conformal systems and demonstrate how one can implement a realistic equation of state using a quasiparticle approach.
We then consider the inclusion of non-spheroidal non-ellipsoidal corrections to leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics and present the findings of the resulting second-order viscous anisotropic hydrodynamics framework. We compare the results obtained in both the conformal and non-conformal cases with exact solutions to the Boltzmann equation and demonstrate that, in all known cases, anisotropic hydrodynamics best reproduces the exact solutions.
Based on this success, we then discuss the phenomenological application of anisotropic hydrodynamics. Along these lines, we review techniques which can be used to convert a momentum-space anisotropic fluid into hadronic degrees of freedom by generalizing the original idea of Cooper-Frye freeze-out to momentum-space anisotropic systems. Our results indicate that anisotropic hydrodynamics provides a promising framework for describing the dynamics of the momentum-space anisotropic QGP created in heavy-ion collisions.
Entropy-limited hydrodynamics : a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics. We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics ELH : a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form.
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ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole.
Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers. Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals. The vorticity is smoothly propagated along the flexing body toward the tail. This vorticity is eventually Whales lunge toward their prey at 2.
Pauly D, Trites. Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling. A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave Whitham modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations.
One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.
Dispersive hydrodynamics : Preface. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code EFDC is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions.
It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn Hydrodynamic separator sediment retention testing. Hydrodynamic separators are widely used in urban areas for removal of suspended sediments and floatables from : stormwater due to limited land availability for the installation of above ground stormwater best management : practices BMPs. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal. A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion.
Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion.
The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U. Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum. We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N volume limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves.
The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical tunneling minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. Sound speed dispersion measurements provide a This paper uses a real-time operations scenario to convey this message.
The real-time operations scenario begins at the initiation of payload operations and runs through post run experiment analysis. In developing this scenario, it is assumed that the ISS payload operations flight and ground capabilities are fully available for use by the payload user Time-series of elevation changes will enable determination of the present-day mass balance of the ice sheets, study of associations between observed ice changes and polar climate, and estimation of the present and future contributions of the ice sheets to global sea level rise. Other scientific Blast pressures from the Dominic Christmas Island tests were recorded at four stations at varying distances of from 10 to 40 miles as a support activity for blast safety prediction.
It was found that atmospheric refraction often influenced blast pressures to a considerable degree at these long ranges. Under usual conditions adequate predictions are made with standard pressure distance curves scaled for yield and height of burst in situations where refracted sound rays are calculated to strike Our purpose in examining this test problem is to measure directly the effect of mesh refinement and the resulting mesh interfaces on a known wave that is sensitive to phase errors, while concurrently being able to visually display a meaningful picture of the effects of the refinement induced error on the solution.
The refined mesh must be able to adequately capture the diffraction behavior, so that the plane wave front bends as it passes through the slit. Given that the coarse and refined Tables are included of the speed of sound vs temperature, the speed of sound vs altitude, various constants, ballistic relative air density vs the altitude of the NACA standard atmosphere, NACA altitude vs ballistic relative air density, and firing table angles.
A graph of air speed vs altitude is included. This report deals with the development and testing of a Pulsed Sound Velocity Indicator PSVI for use on submarines and employing short-path high-frequency echo ranging for measurement of sound velocity. A summary of progress on the theory and simulation of plasmoid formation and propagation is presented. Progress occurred in two areas. First, an analytical model or core-halo dynamics was derived for an arrow-type plasmoid.
This model predicts halo expansion that is approximately linear in time with a velocity proportional to the core ion sound speed and a core expansion that is logarithmic in time. Second, simulation efforts have successfully formed and propagated plasmoids with core and halo Three graduate students were supported by this grant and they performed research in nearfield array measurements and Laser Doppler Vibrometry LDV in the presence of a large acoustic excitation.
Performance evaluations of a nonfueled and a UO2-fueled cylindrical thermionic converter. Comparison of calculated and measured velocities near the tip of a model rotor blade at transonic speeds. The ability of the ROT22 code to predict accurately the transonic flow field in the crucial region around and beyond the tip of a high speed rotor blade was assessed.
The computations were compared with extensive laser velocimetry measurements made at zero advance ratio and tip Mach numbers of 0. The comparison between theory and experiment was made using scans for the three orthogonal velocity components covering a volume having a height of over one blade chord, a The objective of this research is to model and study the effects of transbasin internal waves on lowfrequency signal transmission through the South China Sea SCS basin.
Specifically, the fluctuations in the multipath arrival structure of a Hz acoustic pulse transmitted through a distance of km in the SCS basin in the presence of an internal ocean soliton was modeled and examined. The modeling entailed the integration of a raytracing program with an eigenray search and Sediment volume inhomogeneity on the centimeter scale has a major impact on the design and application of high-frequency sonars, especially when operated in shallow water. An acoustic imaging system was developed to measure, image and model such inhomogeneities using acoustic tomography.
The in-situ sediment acoustic imaging system consists of an array of needle-like probes that may be pressed into the sediment. Each probe is a line array of transducers. The current system consists of three The long-term goal of this contract is to determine if a wide variety of Navy sonars can be used to map the sound speed field by means of acoustical tomography for use in research and surveillance.
The Navy has many more sonars than these, and their use should significantly enhance the accuracy and resolution of tomographic maps. Optoacoustic tomography OAT is an emerging, hybrid technique that is non-invasive and uses non-ionizing radiation. No one has yet developed a molecular probe for early detection of proteases in breast cancer using OAT.
Our group is developing a molecular probe and an optoacoustic imaging system to address this. During the first year of this project, we have implemented the code that simulates the ideal optoacoustic system. We have compared existing 2D algorithms in OAT with respect to The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year. Because of this, only limited amounts of scientific data were gained in each of these events.
Figure D. Generally, a device for a weapons-related UGT for physics research, to refine a warhead design in engineering development, or for a post-fielding test was positioned down a deep vertical shaft in one of the NTS test areas. The vertical shaft was covered with earth and structural support was added to prevent the weight of the earth from crushing the instrumentation package or the device. This closed the direct opening to the surface and precluded the fireball from pushing hot radioactive gases up the shaft into the atmosphere. When the detonation occurred, the hundreds or thousands of down-hole instruments momentarily transmitted data but were almost immediately consumed in the fireball.
The preparation for a vertical UGT took months and included drilling the vertical shaft and preparation of the instrumentation package, which was constructed vertically, usually within meters of the shaft. The instrumentation package was typically 40 to 80 feet high, several feet in diameter, and surrounded by a temporary wooden structure. The structure would have levels, approximately seven to eight feet apart, and a temporary elevator to take technicians to the various floors to place and prepare the instruments. The test device would be lowered into the shaft, followed by the cylindrical instrument package.
After the test, the ground above the detonation would often collapse into the cavity left by the cooling fireball, forming a subsidence crater on the surface directly over the test location. Generally, a UGT device for an effects test was positioned in a long, horizontal tunnel deep in the side of one of the mountains in the Yucca Mountain Range, located at the north end of the NTS.
Typically, the tunnel had a small-scale railroad track running from the entrance to the deepest part of the main tunnel, which included a train to support the logistics movement of workers and equipment. Instruments were positioned at various distances from the device and a huge blast door was constructed to permit the instantaneous effects of nuclear and thermal radiation, X-rays, and electromagnetic pulse to travel to instruments at greater distances but to close prior to the arrival of the blast wave.
After the detonation, instruments outside the blast door would be recovered and the side-drift would be closed and sealed with a large volume of earth. For both vertical and horizontal UGTs, the device would be prepared in a laboratory environment and transported to the test site, usually only a few days prior to the test date. Frequently, UGTs were delayed hours or days. The treaty would not be ratified until but, in , the United States announced it would observe the treaty pending ratification.
The treaty limited all future tests to a maximum yield of kt. This presented a unique problem because, at the time, each of the three legs of the nuclear triad required new warheads with yields exceeding kt and this compelled the weapons design community to make two major changes to nuclear weapons development. First, new warhead designs were limited to using tested and proven secondary stage components, which provide most of the yield in high-yield weapons.
The rationale for this change was that if previous testing had already determined the X-ray output required from the primary stage to ignite or drive the secondary and if testing had also determined the output of the secondary, then all that would be needed was a test to determine if the new primary would produce a yield large enough to drive the secondary. Of the 1, U. Another 79 may have had yields exceeding kt but are listed in unclassified source documents only as being between 20 to kt.
Many of these tests provided the data for scientists to determine the required information e. See Figure D. Nuclear Tests by Yield. The second change was that, in order to test any new warhead with a yield greater than kt, the warhead would have to be reconfigured to ensure it would not produce a yield in excess of kt. Thus, the newest strategic warheads would not have a nuclear test, in its new configuration, for any yields above kt. By the s, the U. Physics research tests contributed to the scientific knowledge and technical data associated with general weapons design principles.
The effects tests contributed to the base of nuclear effects data and to testing the vulnerability of key weapons and systems to the effects of nuclear detonations. Development tests were used to test or refine key aspects of specific designs to increase yield output or to improve certain nuclear detonation safety features.